Research Methodology

Lecture 12
Introduction to statistics

Prof G.D.J. Stewart
( 031-3086782 Email


Statistics [is] the analysis and interpretation of data,hprocess that allows investigators to objectively evaluate data they collect and draw conclusions about patterns observed in the data." (Spyridakis 1991:  208)

Statistics is concerned with the analysis of observed facts which have been expressed as numbers. These numbers may be test scores, linear measurements, frequencies of occurrence, numbers of people, etc." (Elzey 1966: 5)

Everything dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation and representation of numerical data is called statistics." (Mahlangu 1987: 93)