Preparing and writing the
Preparing and writing the Literature
The purpose of the literature review is to
document the state of the art with respect to the research problem that you are
dealing with. This will then provide a foundation for the research work that you
will be carrying out. If you do not conduct a thorough literature review, then
there is a danger that you will be re-inventing the wheel, or overlooking an
important approach that would radically improve the research. In general
literature research is a vital component of any research project.
Don't hand in your first draft. Get a
reasonably knowledgeable person to read and comment on one or more drafts of
your review. Revise it several times so that it is a polished document by the
time it gets handed in. You should follow this general procedure for all your
written work. However, don't expect your lecturer or supervisor to do your
editing for you. Make sure that you acknowledge the assistance that you
get from other people so that there is no ambiguity about what work you did and
where the ideas came from.
Length and Format
The literature review should be typed or
printed in readable font and should be equivalent to 8-10 pages of single spaced
text, or between 2000 and 2500 words in length (for a proposal, a shorter review
is acceptable). It is recommended that you use double spacing so that it is
easier to read and to make comments on the text when it is marked.
The literature review should summarise the
relevant literature and citations should be interspersed liberally within the
text. For instance:
"Smith and Jones (1994) found that
pointed sticks are hazardous to the unprotected human eye. However, Brown (1995)
found that safety glasses cut down the risk of eye injury in pointed stick
manufacture by 90%. Johnson (1995) recommend the use of plexiglass as the ideal
compound to use in constructing safety glasses for this purpose. However, none
of the articles or books that we found after an extensive search considered the
possibility of using slightly blunter sticks..."
The literature review should contain the
This is where you explain why you are
carrying out the literature review and what questions you hope to answer. You
should also summarise the main issues and human requirements that will be
relevant to your research project. The introduction sets the stage for what is
to follow and prepares the reader with a framework that helps to organise the
material provided in the later sections.
Most research is a mixture of creativity,
applied science, and the application of good research methodology. The applied
science is typically driven by one or more relevant theories. This section will
be assessed both in terms of how relevant the theory you discuss is to your
project, and how well the theoretical issues are discussed. Here, and throughout
your literature review, the discussion should sound like a reasoned review of
scholarly literature, rather than a recitation of your opinions.
Theory is good, but you also need practice.
If you were designing a car in the late nineteenth century, then relevant prior
art might include the design of carriages and trains. The goal in this section
is to see what previous research findings might be relevant to your project.
Obviously, you will want to learn from this research, avoid making the mistakes,
or contrast your aims with them to identify what innovations you are making. You
should strive to be creative, but not too fanciful, in finding instances of
prior research to cite. You should also explain your reasoning for classifying
something as prior research, particularly when that reasoning may not otherwise
be clear to the reader.
Ideas and speculations
This section forms the basis for your
conceptual framework. Here is where you discuss all the ideas and concepts that
have been circulating in the literature. For instance, someone trying to invent
the first powered aircraft might talk about the concept of flapping wings like a
bird versus using the Bernoulli principle to create lift. The important thing in
this section, as in the others, is that you can cite literature rather than just
your own opinions. You can still have your opinions, but use the references that
you cite to support your opinions. By choosing articles, and linking them
together in a certain way you still have lots of freedom to express yourself and
what you think is important.
This is where you put it all together. What
have you learned from your review of the literature? What are the key research
aims and principles that follow from this review? What research approaches
should be discarded as less promising? What are the major problems likely to be?
What further research is needed or specific questions answered before you can
get down to detailed work?
You should cite your references in a standard
format, including page numbers, publisher, etc. It is recommended that you
follow the format used in the most authoritative journal(s) in your discipline.
While the number of references that is appropriate will vary between projects at
least 25 references per project can be used as a guideline (fewer would apply to
a Literature Review in a Proposal/Protocol) .